Born in Moscow in 1903.
Attended K.F. Yuon’s private studio in 1915.
In 1918-1919 Goncharov studied at I.I. Mashkov’s and then A.V. Shevchenko’s studios at the State Free Workshops (former School of Painting, Modelling and Architecture).
Between 1921 and 1927 studied under V.A. Favorsky at the VKhUTEMAS department of graphic arts.
From 1923 Goncharov collaborated with newspapers, magazines and publishers as an illustrator and then worked as a painter at the All-Union Agricultural Exhibition.
Exhibited from 1924.
Taught at the art studio of the Frunzensky Public Education Department and at the ethnology faculty of Moscow University in 1927-1929.
Taught at the monumental painting department of the Moscow Institute of Applied and Decorative Arts in 1947-1948.
From 1948 to 1979 Goncharov taught at the Moscow Institute of Graphic Arts and Publishing.
Held a professorship from 1958 and was granted the honorary titles of Merited Figure in Arts of the Russian Federation in 1969 and People’s Artist of the Russian Federation in 1979.
Engaged in painting, graphic arts and book, periodical and stage design.
Died in Moscow in 1979.