Born in the village of Lykoshino, Tver Gubernia, in 1878.
In 1896 and 1897 Chekhonin attended the Drawing School of the Society for the Encouragement of Arts in Petersburg.
Between 1897 and 1900 he studied under I.E. Repin at the Princess M.K. Tenisheva School.
Chekhonin was a member of the “World of Arts” association.
In the period from 1918 to 1923 and from 1925 to 1927 Chekhonin served as artistic director of the State Porcelain Factory.
In 1928 he moved to France.
In 1936 Chekhonin died in Lörrach, Switzerland.
Although Chekhonin was especially famous as a book designer and one of the founders of agit-prop porcelain, he also designed ceramics, enamels, textiles and jewelry, did graphic works for periodicals and industry, and engaged in stage and interior design.